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Page number:956 
Remarks (internal):This group is equivalent to Phallales in the Dictionary of the Fungi 9th edition (Kirk et al 2001) and the "gomphoid-phalloid clade" sensu Hibbett and Thorn (2001). Locquin (1984) used the term "Phallomycetidae" but did not provide a Latin diagnosis, and therefore it is considered invalid in accordance with Article 36.1 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Furthermore Phallo-mycetidae sensu Locquin included only stinkhorn-like taxa and a few sequestrate taxa, which is roughly equivalent to Phallales clade in this study (FIG. 2). The results of our study strongly support the creation of the subclass Phallomycetidae to accommodate the four distinct but related clades (i.e. Phallales, Hysterangiales, Gomphales and Geastrales). This organization accommodates the two previously described orders, Phallales and Gomphales, with the numerous associated families.
On the other hand one could treat the entire gomphoid-phalloid clade as an order Phallales, following Kirk et al (2001). However this treatment would require the creation of four new suborders, or four major clades (Geastrales, Gomphales, Hysterangiales and Phallales; FIG. 2) would have to be recognized at the family level. This change forces the elimination of several widely recognized families, such as Clathraceae, Mesophelliaceae, Protophallaceae and Sphaerobolaceae, all of which are supported as monophyletic groups in this study (FIG. 2). In addition the gomphoid-phalloid clade is potentially one of the basal clades within the homobasidiomycetes (Binder and Hibbett 2002, Lutzoni et al 2004), which further supports the recognition of the subclass status for this group. The use of subclass Phallomycetidae with four orders is the best reflection of the higher-level phylogeny and hence would provide a stable classification system of Basidiomycota.
 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Phallomycetidae Hosaka, Castellano et Spatafora, subclass. nov.
Basidiomata hypogeous or epigeous, solitary, gregarious or caespitose, sequestrate or resupinate, effused-reflexed, pileate, turbinate, infundibuliform, coralliform, clavate, stellate or with a single to irregularly branched receptacle arising from a basal volva. Rhizomorphs often conspicuous at base or sides of basidiomata, occasionally producing dense hyphal mats in soil, sometimes with ampullate hyphae and acanthocystidia with yellowish contents. Hymenium sometimes turning blue with ferric sulfate. Gleba of gastroid taxa gelatinous, mucilaginous, cartilaginous or powdery at maturity, gray to green, olive, brown, cinnamon or black, often with a well developed columella. Spores borne on an exposed hymenium or enclosed within a gleba, statismosporic or ballistosporic, symmetrical or asymmetrical, globose, subglobose, ellipsoid, elongate, cylindrical to fusiform, smooth, verrucose, echinate or ridged, occasionally with a utricle or remnants of an epispore, hyaline to brown in KOH, often cyanophilic.
Type order. - Phallales E. Fischer, in Engler and Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 1 (1**):276, 1898, "Phallineae".
Orders included. - Phallales E. Fischer, Gomphales Jülich, Hysterangiales Hosaka et Castellano, ord. nov., Geastrales Hosaka et Castellano, ord. nov.
 
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